阿里云 Centos7.x 安装 Oracle 11g 详细过程

建立 swap 分区

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dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/swap bs=1024 count=2097152  # bs 为单位,count 为设置的大小 2048 * 1024 = 2G
mkswap /home/swap # 格式化交换文件
swapon /home/swap # 立即启用交换分区文件, 要停止使用新创建的swap文件,只要执行 swapoff/home/swap命令即可

建立完后, 执行 free -m 查看结果:

然后在 /etc/fstab 添加一行, 用来防止重启机器后 swap 分区会失效的问题:

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/home/swap             swap          swap    defaults        0 0

创建用户和用户组

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groupadd oinstall                           # 创建用户组 oinstall
groupadd dba # 创建用户组 dba
useradd -g oinstall -G dba -m oracle # 创建 oracle 用户,并加入到 oinstall 和 dba 用户组

创建完后, 修改 oracle 用户的密码:

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passwd oracle

创建安装目录和权限

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mkdir -p /data/oracle
mkdir -p /data/oraInventory
mkdir -p /data/database
chown -R oracle:oinstall /data/oracle
chown -R oracle:oinstall /data/oraInventory
chown -R oracle:oinstall /data/database

/data/oracle: oracle 数据库安装目录
/data/oraInventory oracle 数据库配置文件目录
/data/database oracle 数据库软件包解压目录

修改OS系统标识

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vi /etc/redhat-release

修改成 redhat-7.

修改内核参数

编辑 /etc/sysctl.conf 增加以下内容:

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net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts = 1
net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 1
fs.file-max = 6815744
fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax = 2147483648
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max= 4194304
net.core.wmem_default= 262144
net.core.wmem_max= 1048576

执行命令使配置生效 sysctl -p

编辑 /etc/security/limits.conf 增加以下内容:

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oracle soft nproc 2047
oracle hard nproc 16384
oracle soft nofile 1024
oracle hard nofile 65536

配置 oracle 用户的环境变量:

编辑 /home/oracle/.bash_profile 文件, 增加以下内容

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export ORACLE_BASE=/data/oracle
export ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/product/11.2.0/db_1
export ORACLE_SID=orcl
export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:/usr/sbin:$PATH
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/usr/lib
export TNS_ADMIN=$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin

**注意: 这里的 ORACLE_SID 要是你的实例名, 这里我配置为了 orcl, 如需要的实例名不一样, 请自行更改 **

安装需要的 rpm 包

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yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ make binutils compat-libstdc++-33 glibc glibc-devel libaio libaio-devel libgcc libstdc++ libstdc++-devel libXtst sysstat ksh make libXi compat-libcap1

下载 oracle 11g 镜像

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wget -P /root/ http://mirror.cnop.net/oracle/linux/linux.x64_11gR2_database_1of2.zip
wget -P /root/ http://mirror.cnop.net/oracle/linux/linux.x64_11gR2_database_2of2.zip

解压镜像到对应的文件夹

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yum install -y unzip
unzip /root/linux.x64_11gR2_database_1of2.zip -d /data/database/
unzip /root/linux.x64_11gR2_database_2of2.zip -d /data/database/

修改静默安装配置信息

编辑 /data/database/database/db_install.rsp 文件, :

你可以直接复制以下内容内容进行覆盖, 不过以下参数中有几个需要自己配置下:

  • ORACLE_HOSTNAME: 应该是你的主机名称, 通过命令 hostname 获取.

  • oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.globalDBName: 指定 GlobalName

  • oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.SID: 指定 SID

  • oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.characterSet: 字符集, 通常中文选择 ZHS16GBK 简体中文库. 根据自己的需要来配置.

  • oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.ALL: 所有自带用户的密码

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####################################################################
## Copyright(c) Oracle Corporation 1998,2008. All rights reserved.##
## ##
## Specify values for the variables listed below to customize ##
## your installation. ##
## ##
## Each variable is associated with a comment. The comment ##
## can help to populate the variables with the appropriate ##
## values. ##
## ##
## IMPORTANT NOTE: This file contains plain text passwords and ##
## should be secured to have read permission only by oracle user ##
## or db administrator who owns this installation. ##
## ##
####################################################################

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Do not change the following system generated value.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.responseFileVersion=/oracle/install/rspfmt_dbinstall_response_schema_v11_2_0

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the installation option.
# It can be one of the following:
# 1. INSTALL_DB_SWONLY
# 2. INSTALL_DB_AND_CONFIG
# 3. UPGRADE_DB
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.option=INSTALL_DB_SWONLY

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the hostname of the system as set during the install. It can be used
# to force the installation to use an alternative hostname rather than using the
# first hostname found on the system. (e.g., for systems with multiple hostnames
# and network interfaces)
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ORACLE_HOSTNAME=iZoj9kewj15nyqZ

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the Unix group to be set for the inventory directory.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
UNIX_GROUP_NAME=oinstall

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the location which holds the inventory files.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
INVENTORY_LOCATION=/data/oraInventory

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the languages in which the components will be installed.
#
# en : English ja : Japanese
# fr : French ko : Korean
# ar : Arabic es : Latin American Spanish
# bn : Bengali lv : Latvian
# pt_BR: Brazilian Portuguese lt : Lithuanian
# bg : Bulgarian ms : Malay
# fr_CA: Canadian French es_MX: Mexican Spanish
# ca : Catalan no : Norwegian
# hr : Croatian pl : Polish
# cs : Czech pt : Portuguese
# da : Danish ro : Romanian
# nl : Dutch ru : Russian
# ar_EG: Egyptian zh_CN: Simplified Chinese
# en_GB: English (Great Britain) sk : Slovak
# et : Estonian sl : Slovenian
# fi : Finnish es_ES: Spanish
# de : German sv : Swedish
# el : Greek th : Thai
# iw : Hebrew zh_TW: Traditional Chinese
# hu : Hungarian tr : Turkish
# is : Icelandic uk : Ukrainian
# in : Indonesian vi : Vietnamese
# it : Italian
#
# Example : SELECTED_LANGUAGES=en,fr,ja
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SELECTED_LANGUAGES=zh_CN,zh_TW,en

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the complete path of the Oracle Home.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ORACLE_HOME=/data/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the complete path of the Oracle Base.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ORACLE_BASE=/data/oracle/

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the installation edition of the component.
#
# The value should contain only one of these choices.
# EE : Enterprise Edition
# SE : Standard Edition
# SEONE : Standard Edition One
# PE : Personal Edition (WINDOWS ONLY)
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.InstallEdition=EE

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# This variable is used to enable or disable custom install.
#
# true : Components mentioned as part of 'customComponents' property
# are considered for install.
# false : Value for 'customComponents' is not considered.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.isCustomInstall=false

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# This variable is considered only if 'IsCustomInstall' is set to true.
#
# Description: List of Enterprise Edition Options you would like to install.
#
# The following choices are available. You may specify any
# combination of these choices. The components you choose should
# be specified in the form "internal-component-name:version"
# Below is a list of components you may specify to install.
#
# oracle.rdbms.partitioning:11.2.0.1.0 - Oracle Partitioning
# oracle.rdbms.dm:11.2.0.1.0 - Oracle Data Mining
# oracle.rdbms.dv:11.2.0.1.0 - Oracle Database Vault
# oracle.rdbms.lbac:11.2.0.1.0 - Oracle Label Security
# oracle.rdbms.rat:11.2.0.1.0 - Oracle Real Application Testing
# oracle.oraolap:11.2.0.1.0 - Oracle OLAP
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.customComponents=oracle.server:11.2.0.1.0,oracle.sysman.ccr:10.2.7.0.0,oracle.xdk:11.2.0.1.0,oracle.rdbms.oci:11.2.0.1.0,oracle.network:11.2.0.1.0,oracle.network.listener:11.2.0.1.0,oracle.rdbms:11.2.0.1.0,oracle.options:11.2.0.1.0,oracle.rdbms.partitioning:11.2.0.1.0,oracle.oraolap:11.2.0.1.0,oracle.rdbms.dm:11.2.0.1.0,oracle.rdbms.dv:11.2.0.1.0,orcle.rdbms.lbac:11.2.0.1.0,oracle.rdbms.rat:11.2.0.1.0

###############################################################################
# #
# PRIVILEGED OPERATING SYSTEM GROUPS #
# ------------------------------------------ #
# Provide values for the OS groups to which OSDBA and OSOPER privileges #
# needs to be granted. If the install is being performed as a member of the #
# group "dba", then that will be used unless specified otherwise below. #
# #
###############################################################################

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The DBA_GROUP is the OS group which is to be granted OSDBA privileges.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.DBA_GROUP=dba

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The OPER_GROUP is the OS group which is to be granted OSOPER privileges.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.OPER_GROUP=oinstall

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the cluster node names selected during the installation.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.CLUSTER_NODES=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the type of database to create.
# It can be one of the following:
# - GENERAL_PURPOSE/TRANSACTION_PROCESSING
# - DATA_WAREHOUSE
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.type=GENERAL_PURPOSE

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the Starter Database Global Database Name.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.globalDBName=orcl

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the Starter Database SID.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.SID=orcl

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the Starter Database character set.
#
# It can be one of the following:
# AL32UTF8, WE8ISO8859P15, WE8MSWIN1252, EE8ISO8859P2,
# EE8MSWIN1250, NE8ISO8859P10, NEE8ISO8859P4, BLT8MSWIN1257,
# BLT8ISO8859P13, CL8ISO8859P5, CL8MSWIN1251, AR8ISO8859P6,
# AR8MSWIN1256, EL8ISO8859P7, EL8MSWIN1253, IW8ISO8859P8,
# IW8MSWIN1255, JA16EUC, JA16EUCTILDE, JA16SJIS, JA16SJISTILDE,
# KO16MSWIN949, ZHS16GBK, TH8TISASCII, ZHT32EUC, ZHT16MSWIN950,
# ZHT16HKSCS, WE8ISO8859P9, TR8MSWIN1254, VN8MSWIN1258
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.characterSet=ZHS16GBK

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# This variable should be set to true if Automatic Memory Management
# in Database is desired.
# If Automatic Memory Management is not desired, and memory allocation
# is to be done manually, then set it to false.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.memoryOption=true

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the total memory allocation for the database. Value(in MB) should be
# at least 256 MB, and should not exceed the total physical memory available
# on the system.
# Example: oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.memoryLimit=512
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.memoryLimit=512

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# This variable controls whether to load Example Schemas onto the starter
# database or not.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.installExampleSchemas=false

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# This variable includes enabling audit settings, configuring password profiles
# and revoking some grants to public. These settings are provided by default.
# These settings may also be disabled.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.enableSecuritySettings=true

###############################################################################
# #
# Passwords can be supplied for the following four schemas in the #
# starter database: #
# SYS #
# SYSTEM #
# SYSMAN (used by Enterprise Manager) #
# DBSNMP (used by Enterprise Manager) #
# #
# Same password can be used for all accounts (not recommended) #
# or different passwords for each account can be provided (recommended) #
# #
###############################################################################

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# This variable holds the password that is to be used for all schemas in the
# starter database.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.ALL=*******

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the SYS password for the starter database.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.SYS=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the SYSTEM password for the starter database.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.SYSTEM=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the SYSMAN password for the starter database.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.SYSMAN=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the DBSNMP password for the starter database.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.DBSNMP=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the management option to be selected for the starter database.
# It can be one of the following:
# 1. GRID_CONTROL
# 2. DB_CONTROL
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.control=DB_CONTROL

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the Management Service to use if Grid Control is selected to manage
# the database.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.gridcontrol.gridControlServiceURL=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# This variable indicates whether to receive email notification for critical
# alerts when using DB control.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.dbcontrol.enableEmailNotification=false

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the email address to which the notifications are to be sent.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.dbcontrol.emailAddress=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the SMTP server used for email notifications.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.dbcontrol.SMTPServer=


###############################################################################
# #
# SPECIFY BACKUP AND RECOVERY OPTIONS #
# ------------------------------------ #
# Out-of-box backup and recovery options for the database can be mentioned #
# using the entries below. #
# #
###############################################################################

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# This variable is to be set to false if automated backup is not required. Else
# this can be set to true.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.automatedBackup.enable=false

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Regardless of the type of storage that is chosen for backup and recovery, if
# automated backups are enabled, a job will be scheduled to run daily at
# 2:00 AM to backup the database. This job will run as the operating system
# user that is specified in this variable.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.automatedBackup.osuid=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Regardless of the type of storage that is chosen for backup and recovery, if
# automated backups are enabled, a job will be scheduled to run daily at
# 2:00 AM to backup the database. This job will run as the operating system user
# specified by the above entry. The following entry stores the password for the
# above operating system user.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.automatedBackup.ospwd=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the type of storage to use for the database.
# It can be one of the following:
# - FILE_SYSTEM_STORAGE
# - ASM_STORAGE
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.storageType=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the database file location which is a directory for datafiles, control
# files, redo logs.
#
# Applicable only when oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.storage=FILE_SYSTEM
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.fileSystemStorage.dataLocation=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the backup and recovery location.
#
# Applicable only when oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.storage=FILE_SYSTEM
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.fileSystemStorage.recoveryLocation=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the existing ASM disk groups to be used for storage.
#
# Applicable only when oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.storage=ASM
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.asm.diskGroup=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the password for ASMSNMP user of the ASM instance.
#
# Applicable only when oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.storage=ASM_SYSTEM
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.asm.ASMSNMPPassword=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the My Oracle Support Account Username.
#
# Example : MYORACLESUPPORT_USERNAME=metalink
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MYORACLESUPPORT_USERNAME=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the My Oracle Support Account Username password.
#
# Example : MYORACLESUPPORT_PASSWORD=password
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MYORACLESUPPORT_PASSWORD=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify whether to enable the user to set the password for
# My Oracle Support credentials. The value can be either true or false.
# If left blank it will be assumed to be false.
#
# Example : SECURITY_UPDATES_VIA_MYORACLESUPPORT=true
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SECURITY_UPDATES_VIA_MYORACLESUPPORT=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify whether user wants to give any proxy details for connection.
# The value can be either true or false. If left blank it will be assumed
# to be false.
#
# Example : DECLINE_SECURITY_UPDATES=false
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DECLINE_SECURITY_UPDATES=true

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the Proxy server name. Length should be greater than zero.
#
# Example : PROXY_HOST=proxy.domain.com
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PROXY_HOST=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the proxy port number. Should be Numeric and atleast 2 chars.
#
# Example : PROXY_PORT=25
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PROXY_PORT=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the proxy user name. Leave PROXY_USER and PROXY_PWD
# blank if your proxy server requires no authentication.
#
# Example : PROXY_USER=username
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PROXY_USER=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the proxy password. Leave PROXY_USER and PROXY_PWD
# blank if your proxy server requires no authentication.
#
# Example : PROXY_PWD=password
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PROXY_PWD=

进行安装

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su - oracle
cd /data/database/database
./runInstaller -silent -ignorePrereq -ignoreSysPrereqs -responseFile /data/database/database/response/db_install.rsp

启动数据库

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su - root
/data/oraInventory/orainstRoot.sh
/data/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/root.sh

配置监听

切换到 oracle 用户给:

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su - oracle
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lsnrctl start  # 启动
lsnrctl stop # 关闭
lsnrctl status # 查看监听状态

** 注意, 这里中间的 - 不能省略,**

创建 /data/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/network/admin/listener.ora 文件.

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# listener.ora Network Configuration File: /data/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/network/admin/listener.ora
# Generated by Oracle configuration tools.

SID_LIST_LISTENER =
(SID_LIST =
(SID_DESC =
(GLOBAL_DBNAME = orcl)
(SID_NAME = orcl)
)
)

ORCL =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 39.106.11.126)(PORT = 1521))
)

ADR_BASE_ORCL = /data/oracle

创建 /data/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/network/admin/tnsnames.ora 文件.

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# tnsnames.ora Network Configuration File: /data/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/network/admin/tnsnames.ora
# Generated by Oracle configuration tools.

ORCL =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS_LIST =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 39.106.11.126)(PORT = 1521))
)
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVICE_NAME = orcl)
)
)

开放端口

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firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=1521/tcp --permanent
firewall-cmd --reload